materilasDon Bosco Technical Institute
Vicmico, Victorias City, Negros Occidental
Civil Technology Handouts
1. Introduction to Civil Technology:
5s is a workplace organization in improvement methodology that uses a list of 5 Japanese words SEIRI, SEITON, SEISO, SEIKETSU and SHITSUKE.
Civil technology is the field of drafting, cartography, traffic technology and the analysis of construction materials to support construction, engineering, and architecture for roads, bridges and other public structures.
Civil engineers design, build, supervise, operate, and maintain construction projects and systems in the public and private sector, including roads, buildings, airports, tunnels, dams, bridges, and systems for water supply and sewage treatment. Many civil engineers work in design, construction, research, and education.
II. The tools and materials used in civil technology.
A. Tooth-cutting tools –tooth cutting tools are tools used for cutting. It has built in teeth used to cut objects especially wood and metal.
* crosscut saw – used to cut wood across the grain.
* rip saw – used to cut wood along the grain.
* back saw – has a thin blade , a metal back that makes it stiff and smaller teeth than those of the cross cut saw: used to cut wood into pieces at an angle.
* Keyhole saw – used to cut small arcs, circles and holes: cuts 1/4 inch holes as well as big circles: has a tapered blade that cuts wood which other kinds of saws cannot cut.
* coping saw – a curve cutter, good for cutting thin wood and plastic.
* hacksaw – a fine toothed saw used to cut hard objects such as hardwoods and metal, pipes and other objects made of metal.
* jack plane – the most useful, all around plane used for both rough and smooth flat surfaces.
* block plane – a small plane with a single cutter which is used to smoothen end grains and for light trimming.
* jointer plane – the longest among common planes. Used to flatten uneven wood surfaces faster.
* smooth plane – is shorter than the jack plane. Used for smoothing wood surfaces.
* chisels – a long-bladed hand tool with a beveled cutting edge and a plain handle that is struck with a hammer or mallet, used to cut or shape wood, stone, metal, or other hard materials.
* drawknife – used to remove large amounts of stock rapidly by drawing towards you.
* spokeshave – a small plane like tool used to form irregular shaped objects has two handles and a small cutting blade.
Two kinds of spoke shave:
C. Driving tools
* claw hammer – used to drive and pull out nalis.
* screw driver – used to tighten and loosen screws.
Two types of screw driver:
* Mallet – used to drive wooden handed tools.
D. Boring tools
* Drill bits – used to bore small holes on thin pieces of wood and other fibrous materials.
* Auger bit – used to bore big holes ranging from 1/4 inch to 1 inch.
* Gimlet – used to bore guide holes for screws.
E. Testing tools
* Try square – an accurate tool used to test the squareness of small pieces of wood. It is sometimes called (steel square).
* Framing square – A highly accurate tool used to square big projects such as squaring the foundation of a building or the sides of a furniture.
* Plumb bob – used to check vertical alignment.
* Hose – used to check horizontal alignment of wider area.
* Spirit level – used to check horizontal alignment.
* Combination square – used also for squaring as it is also used for determining the 45 degree angle of wood.
F. Measuring tools
* Ruler – is one foot long measuring tool.
* Wood rule/zigzag rule – a measuring tool usually 6 feet long and made of wood. It is also called zigzag because it can be opened and folded forming a figure Z.
* Pull push rule /Steel rule – a measuring tool made of metal.
G. Holding tools – Holding tools are used to hold objects or other tools while working.
* Auger brace – this is classified also as holding tool as it does not actually bore a hole but holds the auger bit which is the real boring tool. This is true with the hand drill.
* Vise – is a versatile tool that holds a piece of wood being worked on. This is usually attached to one end of the work bench.
* Pliers – are mainly used for holding.
* C-clamp – used to hold a piece of wood.
H. Lining tools – these are used for making straight lines on surfaces.
* Marking gauge – the best tool to scribe lines along the grain of a piece of wood.
* Chalk line – is used to make straight lines on a surface. The chord or string is tied to a nail and pulled out on a surface and snapped to make a straight line.
I. Sharpening Tools
* Grindstone/wheel – this tool is used to grind the edge of a tool until the desired sharpness is attained. The wheel is usually attached to a motor that constitutes a grinder.
* Oil stone – after sharpening the edge cutting tool in a grindstone, it is sharpened further in an oil stone using oil or water.
J. Miscellaneous Tools
* Brushes – these are used for painting and varnishing usually made of bristles, hair and plastics.
* Scratch awl – is a pointed tool used to scratch marks or lines on a surface.
K. Power tools – these make our work done faster and in a short period of time. Most of these tools are portable and easy to operate. These are usually runned by small motors.
* Electric drill – this is used to hold drill bits to drill small holes on wood or on metals.
* Portable circular saw – is a worthwhile tool for cutting sheets of plywood and hard boards in a very fast rate.
* Portable jigsaw – is a sturdy power tool that can make straight and curve cuts. It can easily cut a one inch wood.
* Portable sander – used to smooth en a wood surface to a smooth finish in a short period of time.
Prepared by: Mr. Danny Ray Serquillos
III. Parts of a House
Houses are built for people to live in. They provide shelter and keep their occupants safe. They range from nipa huts and bungalows, to high-rise condominiums. They are made of different materials and built in different ways.
Materials used to build a house depend on where it is located. In the rural areas, local materials such as bamboo, nipa, and cogon are used. In urban areas, wood , iron, bricks , stones , cement and steel are used.
The parts of a house are built according to the design in the plan which describes size and grade of materials, method of construction, competence of those who will build it, and efficiency of equipment.
Major Parts of the House
* Footing – is the structure in the foundation which transmits loads directly to the soil or foundation bed.
* Column Foundation – is the widened portion of a column below the ground and is called column footing or footing.
* Wall foundation – is the widened portion of a wall below the ground or the wall footing or footing.
* Posts – refers to the pieces of timber of geometrical cross section, placed vertically to support the building.
3. Walls – are structures which enclose the building, or divide it into rooms. Consist of a continuous surface except where there are doors and windows.
4. Floors – make up the surface of the rooms where one walks.
5. Roof – refers to the top covering of a house.
* Ceiling – is the overhead part of the room.
Basic parts of a house
I. Fascia Board – a piece of wood attached to the end of rafter where the gutter is nailed.
J. Ceiling joints – the horizontal pieces of wood on which the ceiling boards are nailed.
Interpreting a building plan
A building plan is a blueprint made up of many drawings of plans. It has floor plans, an elevation, and sectional views, framing plan for each floor and a plan of the roof. These plans are done either by a civil engineer or an architect.
The architect discusses with the customer the type of residential house to be built and draws rough sketches of what the owner perceives the house to be. The sketches will then be finalized and if approved by the owner, will finally be drawn on scale.
Set of plans
A set of plans consists of the lot plan, the elevations including the front view, side view, back view, the floor plans, sections, and the foundation plan.
Framing details for the roofing, partitions, floors, and stairs are meticulously drawn in a clear and easy to understand presentation.
If you cut the building horizontally about one meter high and look at the floor from the top, you are viewing the floor plan. The plan shows the location of bedrooms, the living room, the dining room, the kitchen and comfort rooms, including the garage, terrace, and porch.
Dimension lines are used in all the plans to show the size of the rooms and the building itself.
Elevations are views of the building from the outside. The building is drawn as seen in front, from the left, the right side and viewed at the back.
Before construction starts, the owner should be satisfied with the appearance of the house.
Information given by the elevation plan includes floor level, height of the building, window and door sizes, and the type of materials used on the walls and roofs.
If a building is cut vertically into two, and we look it on the left or on the right, we see the view of the sections of the building.
We can see the different parts of the building and how they fit together, from the footing to the roof. We can interpret the building plan through the section views.
Two types of sections of the building:
Details are drawn to show connections which cannot be seen in all the plans. Usually these are small details that cannot be included in any other plans.
Details can be drawn for the floor elevation, ceiling, roof, the doors and the windows and how these are attached, including the kitchen cabinets.
You cannot interpret and appreciate a blueprint unless you understand scaling. All plans are drawn to a scale.
An example of scaling in the English system of measurement is the 1/4”:1’ scale. This means that on paper, the measurement is 1/4” but when actually laid out in its setting, 1/4” is equivalent to one foot.
If the building plan shows that the length of the building is 10 feet, the actual length on the drawing paper is 2 1/2”.
At the bottom of the drawing paper you can see the scale used. If the scale says 1/4” : 1’, this means that every 1/4” on the drawing paper is equivalent to one foot in the actual construction.
The first construction work on a new structure is the excavation for the foundation where the building will rest. Excavations are needed for concrete footings, foundation walls, and other purposes. It must have a solid and level bed bottom to support the concrete works. The lot plan, the foundation plan and the footing details are the basis for the concrete works. These aspects of the construction require the use of concrete, cement, aggregates, and steel bars for reinforcement.
A good foundation is needed for a building to carry its weight and to make sure the strength and safety of its structure. In constructing the foundation , the type of soil, the weather, and the weight of the building must be determined in order to know how deep the foundation should be and the thickness and length of its footing.
Site or Lot plan
The lot plan shows the location of the building in the site where it is going to be constructed. Sometimes it is called site plan. You can determine how far the building would be from the roadside and from the property line on all sides.
The lot plan helps the owner determine which part of the lot will be the garden, the playground for the children and family, where a path should be, and where laundry would be hung.
Note the scale used in drawing the foundation plan. The mixture of concrete on the building foundation should always be first class, a 1: 2 : 3 mixture.
The reinforcement of steel bars should be followed strictly according to the plan to ensure a strong and solid foundation.
The mixture of concrete:
|1 bag |
|1 1/2 bags|
2 1/2 bags
|3 bags |
Walls are made of solid concrete which is a mixture of cement, sand and gravel, or concrete hollow blocks which are made of cement and sand mixed with water and mortar in fill.
A horizontal bar is always placed on top of every 3 layers of concrete hollow blocks and vertical bars are placed every one and one half concrete hollow blocks. The crosspoint of the horizontal bar and vertical bar is tied with 16 gauge tie wire. The rest of the layers of concrete hollow blocks are laid until the desired height is reached.
The concrete floor
Almost all flooring on the first level of residential buildings are made of concrete. Some flooring are reinforced with steel bars but in most residential homes, these are not reinforced.
All concrete works for foundations, footings, and solid concrete walls use first class concrete mixtures. The mixture is reinforced with steel bars to make it 10 times stronger in order to resist breakage, and 100 times stronger from tensile (pulling stress). Steel and concrete are ideally used together to resist heavy loads.
B. ESTIMATING THE BILL OF MATERIALS
The bill of materials is the list of materials needed in a project. It identifies the materials needed, the quantity and cost, using the working drawing as a guide.
Classify the materials as:lumber, hardware, and finishing materials.
Quality lumber needed is computed in board feet. A board foot means lumber that is “one inch thick, twelve inches wide and 12 inches long. This can be computed using the following formulas:
12×12 W = width
L = Length
Example: “ = inches
‘ = feet
2”×2”×36” = 1 Board feet
B. T”×W”×L’ = Board feet
2”x2”x12’ = 4 board feet
Masonry – Is the art of working on bricks, stones, and concrete. People working on these materials are called Mason. Bricks and concrete hollow blocks are strong materials used to build residential and commercial buildings. They are used for the walls, floors, posts and practically all parts of the building.
Materials used in Masonry
Portland cement is the most extensively used cement in building construction. It is very strong material used for construction of concrete roads and bridges and all kinds of buildings.
These are materials such as sand and gravel. There are fine and coarse aggregates. Aggregates that are a millimeter in diameter or smaller are classified as fine, while coarse aggregates are those that are more than a millimeter in diameter.
Water intended for concrete mixing should be clean and free from oil, acid, alkali, salts, and organic materials.
Essential tools used in masonry:
Prepared by: Danny Ray Serquillos
Civil technology Instructor
Checked and noted by: Fr. Rooney John G. Undar